Fostoria American and Jobling 2077 Patterns Glass

Fostoria American and Jobling 2077 patterns are very similar, as Emily Seate, co-author of the book "Fostoria Stemware" pointed out. There has been some confusion which I hope this short piece helps to sort it out. John Bell, a glass specialist from the North East of England (the home of Joblings) has helped us by providing a photograph of his Jobling's bowl and many other people have contributed to the information now on this page.

The English company James A. Joblings & Co Ltd., produced a "3-handled salad bowl" and a "3-handled small bowl" in a very similar "icecube" pattern to Fostoria "American". This was part of an experiment in expensive quality pressed glass that Jobling's introduced in the mid-1930's, but discontinued in 1939 because the depression and the Second World War put an end to production.

The Jobling's catalogue form the mid 1930's shows only these two shapes in this pattern, and only in this colour (jade). However, an earlier catalogue shows these two three-handled bowls and in addition a large jug and small jug (each with one handle) and tumbler and low sugar bowl both without handles. There is a flint glass version and I have seen a deep turquoise version in John Bell's shop in the North East of England. These were probably made before the 1930s. Below is a photograph of the turquoise bowl belonging to John Bell and my clear glass set with one jade bowl.

The plain "icecubes" pattern (without the Jobling's star) was known in England as "Georgian" and was imported in large quantities by Charles Pratt's National Glass Company (which had showrooms in Charterhouse Street, London) along with another popular design "Chippendale" (patented in the USA in 1907). In 1931 the British Government introduced a 50% import duty on glass, and at that time the moulds for popular designs from overseas were bought and imported so that the glass could be made in Britain.

We know that the moulds for the Czechoslovakian design known as "Jacobean" were imported around 1931, and British firms then made that design, notably Davidsons. The moulds for "Chippendale" were imported from the USA and made at Davidsons. So it would not be surprising to find that the moulds for "Georgian" were also imported and the glass made in England during the 1930's. Davidson's did advertise a design they called "Georgian" at that time, but I have not so far found a picture of that design. The picture below shows two English versions of the ice cube design. On the left is a small Jobling 2077 bowl in jade, and on the right a sugar bowl which is marked on the inside "Made in England" in jade glass typical of Davidson's. This is probably an example of Davidson's "Georgian" pattern.

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Maori Musical Instruments, the Koauau and Putatara

Maori musical instruments, the koauau (wooden flutes) and putatara (trompet).

The koaua - and the longest Maori placename: Tetaumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu (Te taumata whatatangihanga koauau o tamatea uraehae turipukaka pikimaunga horonuku pokaiwhenua ki tanatahu) .

It is the name given by the local Maori people, Ngati Kere to a prominent hill to celebrate the achievements of Maori ancestor, Tamatea Pokai Whenua. Tamatea was a famous chief and warrior of his time. His son Kahungunu was the founder of the Ngati Kahungunu tribe, which extends from Gisborne to Cape Palliser.
Maori musical instruments, the koauau (wooden flutes) and putatara (trompet. Tamatea was so grieved over the loss of his brother in the Matanui battle, he would sit on the hill and play his lament on what is called the koauau or Maori flute. The name means 'T
he hilltop where Tamatea, with big knees, conqueror of mountains, eater of land, traveller over land and sea, played his Koauau (flute) to his beloved'.

Maori koauau

The koauau of old were produced by individuals, tohunga whakairo, Master Carvers, out of various materials. Wood, bone and stone koauau being predominant.

The rakau (wooden) koauau allowed the carvers to produce often intricately carved and decorated pieces that would often pass down through the generations….

Carve your niche in the sculpture market

What makes sculpture a unique art experience is the fact that it must be observed over time to understand. Sculpture is a freestanding work that's intended to be viewed from a continuously changing vantage point to observe how the form evolves. The interplay of light on and across the surfaces accentuates forms and textures.

Sculpture is also different from wall art in the process of creation; materials used and methods of casting require collaboration between an artist and technician. Knowing the process, therefore, is as much a part of the sculpture experience as viewing.

Understanding these factors ultimately will ensure a gallery's success with sculpture. "Selling sculpture is not much different than selling paintings," said Daniel Winn, c.e.o. of Masterpiece Publishing. "It's important to understand the process and to communicate that knowledge to collectors."

In some ways, Winn added, sculpture is easier to sell than wall art. "You can take advantage of sculpture's tactile properties," he said. "If customers can touch and handle sculpture, they experience it in a more fundamental way."

A major advantage to selling sculpture is its ability to convert more square footage into valuable real estate. "Sculpture can be displayed in unused or walking space," said Karen Johnston, president and c.e.o. of Fingerhut Group Publishers. "It's a practical way to make the most out of a gallery space."

For gallery owners who want to delve into the sculpture arena, here are some tips to consider:

Highlight the display. Many novice sculpture dealers make the mistake of shoving three-dimensional art into an empty corner and calling it a day; when time goes by without a sale, they decide that investing in a sculpture inventory doesn't pay off.

The best sculpture displays take two facts into consideration: first, the display should show off the characteristics that make sculpture different from wall art--its multiple dimensions, textures and forms. Said Winn, "Sculpture must have the right light. This is the area where I see the most mistakes. The light must focus on the sculpture.

"Customers also must be able to walk around it, look at it from various angles. You shouldn't use three-dimensional art as an accent, but as a focus."

Smaller sculptures can be protected from theft by being placed on a pedestal with a Plexiglas cover or behind locked glass shelves. Some galleries also use metal detectors.

Show how sculpture complements wall art. In keeping with the idea of making sculpture a focus, rather than an accent, gallery owners need to inter-mingle sculpture with other art. Some artists even produce sculpture designed to complement their own published art. By showing customers how a sculpture fits in with other art, you can direct their collecting in new and exciting directions.

Don't skimp on promotion. Since sculpture requires a substantial investment, gallery owners may be tempted not to put more dollars in sculpture beyond the purchase price. The fact is, sculpture can be more profitable than published art. Once gallery owners realize this, they're more willing to spend money on pedestals, lighting and advertisements.

Most major publishers realize the importance of promotion; you can lower marketing costs by using the promotional materials publishers offer their representatives. Go with a publisher who supports its artists. That way, you're not doing all the work. It decreases your costs and increases the artist's exposure.

Consignment versus purchase. Consignment seems, at face value, like the way to go; gallery owners can offer sculpture without adding to their overhead costs. When deciding whether to accept a consignment or make a purchase, consider two points: first, will you give the same commitment to selling a piece that doesn't represent the same kind of investment as your other art inventory? You and your sales representatives must be passionate about a piece of consignment sculpture, or the incentive to promote it will lag behind the other pieces you've poured money into. Second, is this an artist with a proven track record? Taking on an untried artist may give you the satisfaction of launching a new career; however, if you continually offer artists' works on consignment that consistently don't sell, you may find yourself without a solid base of return collectors.

COPYRIGHT 2002 Advanstar Communications, Inc.
COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group

India - A Shoppers Paradise

India, the country which boasts of its rich culture has to its credit the diversity in its, costumes, traditions. India has a wealth of knowledge and skills, which have been passed down from generation to generation. Rajasthan and Gujarat stand out above other states for their colourful embroidery, mirror work, quilting and fabric printing. The variety of art and craft in India can be attributed to it's variety in climates, geography and culture. Different states and regions predominate in art and craft, which is unique to that area. Kashmir is widely known for its Pashmina wool shawls as well as carpets, silverware and ivories, while engraved and enameled meenakari brassware can be found in Rajasthan.

Certain regions are famous for crystals and semi precious stones. You can witness the richness of colours in Indian textiles in the seven-meter silk sarees and the intricate detailed work in small silk brocades from Varanasi. Every handicraft sold in the country is made by tightly knit communities.
Agra's marble workers whose shops look out on to labyrinthine bylanes in the area around the Taj Mahal, for instance, are the descendants of those who lavished the Taj Mahal's walls with pietra dura. In Ahmedabad, Gujarat, narrow alleyways still bear the names of those guilds that once lived in them. It is possible to actually watch craftsmen at work in any city or town in INDIA.

Each state in the country has something different to offer. The theme shopper who wants to collect only paintings can buy miniature paintings on silk, marble tiles, parchment or ivory from each of the several schools of miniature paintings in the country; religious paintings on pressed rags from Orissa and simplistic tribal graphics from Madhuban in Bihar and Warli in Maharashtra. Textiles, wooden dowry chests, embroideries - all these produced in various corners of the country, each being unique in its design element and in its motifs. Sarees are the best known subjects of daily wear. Widely used by much of India's female population, sarees range from gossamer thin Chanderis woven in silk to the thick Kanjeevaram silks of Tamil Nadu.

Both types are distinguished by the restrained use of motifs, but ikats from Orissa, in hand spun cottons of earthy colours, are woven with traditional motifs of a highly distinctive blurred appearance, obtained by precise dyeing and weaving techniques. Indian sarees take as their theme parrots or elephants, seashells or stylized flowers, and sometimes an architectural motif - geometrical patterns or Muslim architectural details are also echoed in sarees.

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Koru - New Zealand Bone Carving

The koru shape is a scroll shape and is linked to the New Zealand fern plant. The shoot of the fern has a curled-over tip which unfurls and becomes a fernleaf.

The koru reaches towards the light, striving for perfection, encouraging new positive beginnings...

The koru, represents the unfolding of new life, that everything is reborn and continues. It represents renewal and hope for the future.

Spiral, geometry of life, sacred creation...